Lee, Y. K. Changes in Metabolite Profiles in Norway Spruce Shoot Tips During Short-Day Induced Winter Bud Development and Long-Day Induced Bud Flush. Metabolomics, 2014.

Synopsis: Insights into the range of metabolic responses to seasonal developmental changes in conifers has been limited.  The study was designed to elucidate the nature of biochemical changes which prepare buds and leaves to survive the harsh conditions of sub-arctic winters.  Rapidly shifting day length (shorter approaching winter) induced the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and a range of stress-remediating compounds, including ascorbate, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, sugars, amino acids and lipids which harden the leaf material for maintenance in cold conditions.  A shift to longer days, which signals the onset of spring, dramatically reversed the hardening response and increased pools of anabolic precursors, allowing rapid growth during the short warm season. 

Metabolon results led to:

•    Elucidation of major metabolic alterations associated with day-length induced seasonal bud development

•     Nature of stress-resistance in conifers in preparation for winter




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